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In the belief that the PrandtlKarman parameters were the more significant ones and therefore the form used by him was superior to that suggested by Moody, Rouse refused to convert the diagram [18]. 2 is now universally known as the Moody diagram and gives the values of/ for different values of Re and elD. Several other investigators such as Powell [20], Ackers [21], Thiruvengdam [22], Ramalho, Tiller and Berry [23], Bewtra [24], Barr and Smith [25], Asthana [26], Li [27) and Barr [28] also presented charts to tackle different flow problems.

6. Values of Manning's Coefficient for Different Pipe Materials. 017 Comparison of Head Loss Formulas 43 in 1881, Valot in 1887, Thrupp in 1888, Manning in 1891, Foss in 1894, Crimp and Bruges in 1895, Tutton in 1896, Yarnell and Woodward in 1920, and Strickler in 1923 provided formulas in which V was expressed as a function of R2'3 SU2 for certain flow conditions [50,51]. Flamant first attributed the formula to Manning in 1891. , introduced the expression "Manning's A7" in literature in 1916. This was rather an ironic development as Manning had clearly rejected the use of the coefficient N [51].

However, Hagen derived the formula only for the Ganga canal, and the formula was well established by the time of Strickler's 1923 paper. 32) should better be named the Gauckler-Manning formula [51]. 32) continues to be known as the Manning formula. 8 COMPARISON OF HEAD LOSS FORMULAS The Darcy-Weisbach, Hazen-Williams, and Manning formulas are now compared. The coefficient of friction/is obtained in terms of the HazenWilliams coefficient CHW and Manning's coefficient N. 8521 /TO. 35) it is clear that/depends upon Re to some extent and D to a lesser extent in addition to the CHW value.

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