By Ahmed H. Al-Salem
This publication is essential for physicians taking good care of younger sufferers with urological stipulations, as a short reference ebook that's effortless to learn and well-illustrated. Pediatric urological stipulations are particularly universal, and babies and youngsters are noticeable day by day with urological difficulties both in clinics or in hospitals.
This booklet comes in handy to common surgeons, pediatricians, pediatric surgeons, fellows, citizens, basic physicians and relatives physicians, scientific scholars and nurses. The Editor has won adventure within the prognosis and administration of assorted urological difficulties in babies and youngsters, operating in busy sanatorium over the past 25 years.
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Extra resources for An Illustrated Guide to Pediatric Urology
Diphallia: – Diphallia, penile duplication (PD), diphallic terata, or diphallaspartus is a rare developmental abnormality. 1 34 Congenital Urological Malformations Figs. 5 million boys, – The first reported case was by Johannes Jacob Wecker in 1609. – It is characterized by a male infant with two penises. – Infants born with penile diphallia usually are accompanied by renal, vertebral, hindgut, anorectal or other congenital anomalies. – There is also a higher risk of spina bifida. – Duplication of the penis, or diphallia, is a rare anomaly resulting from incomplete fusion of the genital tubercle.
Renal calculi occur in up to 20 % of horseshoe kidneys. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis has been reported but is rare. There is an increased risk of malignancy in horseshoe kidneys in childhood. 5- to 8-fold increased risk and surgical management can be challenging. – Renal cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, oncocytoma and carcinoid have all been described. The diagnosis of horseshoe kidney can be confirmed by ultrasound, intravenous urography and CT-scan/MRI. Horseshoe kidneys in themselves do not require any treatment, and patients have normal life expectancy.
Some evidence supports that an abnormally situated umbilical artery prevents normal cephalic migration. – Another theory is that the ureteric bud crosses to the opposite side and induces nephron formation in the contralateral metanephric blastema. The result is a single renal mass with two collecting systems being located on one side of the abdomen. • The estimated incidence is around 1 out of 7,000 births. • It is more common in males than females with a M:F ratio of 2:1 . • In crossed renal ectopia, both kidneys are located on the same side and may occur with: – Fusion (85 %) – Without fusion (<10 %) – Extremely rare it can be solitary or bilateral – The left kidney is three times more likely to migrate to the right than vice versa.