Download An Historical Geography of Europe, 1500-1840 by Norman John Greville Pounds PDF

By Norman John Greville Pounds

This ebook, like its significant other quantity, An ancient Geography of Europe 450 BC-AD 1330, seeks to envision the complicated of normal and man-made positive factors that experience encouraged the process heritage and feature been stimulated via it. It follows the final development of the sooner quantity and spans the interval from the early 16th century to the eve of the commercial Revolution in continental Europe, nearly 1500 to 1840. It first offers an image of the geography of Europe - political, social and monetary - within the early 16th century, and it ends with an analogous photograph of continental Europe within the early 19th. The intervening interval of approximately 3 centuries is just too brief to be awarded in a chain of cross-sections. as a substitute, among those horizontal photographs a sequence of vertical reviews has been inserted. those hint the advance of the most elements of ecu geography in this interval. There are chapters on inhabitants, city improvement, agriculture, production and alternate and delivery. As within the previous quantity, no test has been made to incorporate both the British Isles or Russia, and those are observed in simple terms by the way.

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This ill-assorted bundle of territories was held by a variety of legal titles. All retained their 'customs', and the dukes had little success in creating political unity within them or establishing a centralised administration. Marriage, which had done much to bring these territories together, took them, after the death of the last duke in 1477, to the emperor Maximilian and joined them with the Habsburg lands in southern Germany and Austria. Philip of Habsburg in the next generation married Johanna, heiress of Castile and Aragon as well as of the Spanish empire in the New World.

112 In some areas vineyards of questionable value gave place to cropland, and in the south the garrigue was cleared to make way for the vine. Despite the rising population and a strong market demand for bread grains, little was done to improve either yields per hectare or yieldratios. 113 Yield-ratios varied not only with the weather but also from one cereal crop to another and from one region to another. But even on the good soils of northern France they exceeded 8:1 only on rare occasions,114 and on soils of medium quality the return was at best fivefold.

70 But no one familiar with south-eastern Europe could ever place any reliance on such a total, which would in any case have excluded Albania, Croatia and perhaps also Montenegro. The overall density of population may have been as low as ten, though a much denser population would have been met with in such areas as the Skopje, Bitola and Sofia basins and near Edirne, Sarajevo and Beograd. With Mediterranean Europe we enter a realm at once more populous and better documented. Italy not only had a large and literate middle class to which the size of the population was of interest, but also experienced difficulty in its urban food supply and thus felt a need to have a record of numbers.

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