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At present, there is no encapsulation plant in operation. During the normal operation of an encapsulation plant radioactive waste is produced only when activated materials (crud) is released from the structures of the bundles. This may happen in a wet storage pool. Crud may come loose also in a so-called hot cell of an encapsulation plant, where the bundles are dried and placed in disposal canisters. However, most of the crud released in the hot cell is planned to be collected there and put into the disposal canisters.

2002), Standardisation des outils de calcul pour les ADS et leur application à différents scénarios de transmutation des déchets, PhD thesis No. 2714, EPFL, Lausanne. [20] González, E. et al. (2001), “TRU transmutation studies for phase-out scenarios based on fast neutron ADS systems”, Presented on the ADTTA 2001, Nuclear Applications in the New Millennium, Reno, Nevada, 11-15 November 2001. [21] Takaki, N. et al. (2003), “ORIENT-Cycle – Evolutional Recycle Concept with Fast Reactor for Minimising High-Level Waste”, in NEA (2003), Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation, Proc.

However, most of the crud released in the hot cell is planned to be collected there and put into the disposal canisters. Some airborne radioactive particles will be collected with the filters of the air-conditioning system. About 2 m3 of HEPA filters may be produced yearly in the Finnish encapsulation plant [16]. Several concepts for the decommissioning and disposal of spallation targets have been developed. In the reference concept (based on MEGAPIE experimental facility), lead-bismuth together with the most activated structures will be encased in a shielded stainless steel canister designed for final disposal.

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