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By Vatsal Thakkar

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Extra info for Addiction (Psychological Disorders)

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This is the extremely difficult part. But each day after that can be just as difficult in another way—resisting the temptation to drink again. Most addictions are lifelong diseases, which means that, to avoid a relapse, a person must remain sober for life. Even one drink can lead to a complete relapse with consequences just as treacherous as before. This is why experts say that recovery from an addiction must happen one day at a time. There are treatment tools that can help with this process. Any underlying psychiatric disorder, such as depression or an anxiety disorder, should be treated by a health-care professional.

This brain pathway that is involved in the sensation of pleasure is sometimes called the addiction circuit. It is also involved in the overuse of some chemical substances. 5 Often, in the brains of addicts, the addiction circuit overrides the normal functions of feeding and reproduction. In a laboratory example, a rat is exposed to cocaine and allowed to self-administer the drug. 6 This is why addicts of drugs like heroin, cocaine, nicotine, and alcohol continue to use the drug in the face of life-threatening consequences, neglecting many other normal and necessary activities.

With the spread of Christianity, excessive use of 36 Alcohol and Other Sedatives alcoholic beverages for recreation was discouraged and a more sober lifestyle was promoted. However, the use of alcohol became common throughout western European society with an increase in the popularity of the distillation of alcohol in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Distillation is the process of purifying and concentrating alcohol. Since water and alcohol have different boiling points, heating the mixture to a certain temperature will separate the two.

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