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By Dick Leith

A Social heritage of English is the 1st historical past of the English language to make use of the strategies, insights and matters of sociolinguistics. Written in a non-technical approach, it takes under consideration standardization, pidginization, bi- and multilingualism, the problems of language upkeep and language loyalty, and linguistic variation.
This re-creation has been absolutely revised. Additions comprise: * new fabric approximately 'New Englishes' around the world
* a brand new bankruptcy entitled 'A serious Linguistic historical past of English Texts'
* a dialogue of difficulties curious about writing a historical past of English
All phrases and ideas are defined as they're brought, and linguistic examples are selected for his or her accessibility and intelligibility to the final reader.
It might be of curiosity to scholars of Sociolinguistics, English Language, historical past and Cultural reports.

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By Shakespeare’s time this regional variation in the language of printed literature had all but disappeared, although there have been STANDARDISATION AND WRITING 35 isolated examples since and a reemergence in the industrial north of England in the nineteenth century. The establishment of a national literary norm had crucial repercussions for imaginative literature. In medieval England, there could be no sense of a norm for English usage, for reasons already explained above. Once a norm has been established, at least in the written language, it becomes possible to break it for stylistic purposes—in particular, for representing the speech of people from regions far away or belonging to social groups whose language is supposed to have certain clearly identifiable characteristics.

Although standardisation, as we saw in chapter one, gives speakers a sense of historicity in relation to their language, many have been led to believe that the socalled standard variety is the language itself. From this comes the unfortunate belief (still aired in newspaper columns) that most people do not speak their own language, or at least do not speak it ‘properly’. Many people are quite unsure whether or not they speak ‘Standard English’, although, as a result of codification, they are quite sure what they are not supposed to say.

We may summarise the scribal writing system by saying that in general, spellings were less consistent, more individual, more subject to variation in space and time, then they were to become in the subsequent period of print and standardisation. But before we go on to discuss the latter, we need to mention two developments in the scribal era which tended towards fixity rather than diversity. The first of these was the establishing of a written norm based on the West Saxon dialect of the tenth and eleventh centuries.

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