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By Irad Malkin

Greek civilization and identification crystallized no longer whilst Greeks have been shut jointly but if they got here to be a ways aside. It emerged through the Archaic interval whilst Greeks based coastal urban states and buying and selling stations in ever-widening horizons from the Ukraine to Spain. No middle directed their diffusion: mom towns have been a number of and the hot settlements (»colonies») may usually engender extra settlements. The «Greek heart» used to be at sea it was once shaped via back-ripple results of cultural convergence, following the actual divergence of self sustaining settlements. «The seashores of Greece are like hems stitched onto the lands of Barbarian peoples» (Cicero). total, and despite distance, payment practices grew to become Greek within the making and Greek groups way more resembled one another than any in their specific acquaintances just like the Etruscans, Iberians, Scythians, or Libyans. The distinction among «center and outer edge» not often mattered (all used to be peri-, «around»), nor used to be a bi-polar distinction with Barbarians of a lot value.

Should we recognize the Greeks for having created their civilization inspite of the large distances and discontinuous territories isolating their self sustaining groups? Or did the salient elements in their civilization shape and crystallize as a result of its structure as a de-centralized community? This e-book claims that the reply lies in community attributes shaping a «Small Greek World,» the place separation is measured through levels of touch instead of by way of actual dimensions.

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Having been "electrified" by the foundation of numerous new city-states, did networks function according to "laws" that govem networks in general? In other words, might there be something common to rhizome plants, molecular biology, brain science, the Internet, crickets chirping in synchrony, and Greek civilization? The temptation to use "power laws" of network behavior as explanatory or even predictive must be resisted or at least seriously qualified. 57Sadly,historians of antiquity do not possess so comprehensive a database, and the application of network concepts must foIlowthe more basic terminology and observations of network theorists.

Ln sum, the term "foundation" may signify the entire period of the founder's mature life from arrival at the site to his death, as well as the hero cult founded in his honor, which provided the foundation with a closure. This, of course, is a general scheme, with many particular varieties relative to circumstance. However, an analysis of both ancient sources and archaeological evidence seems to confirm the general picture of the processes of foundation, perhaps with less emphasis on the a priori organization at the "mother city," which seems to have been consolidating as a polítical community in tandem with the early phases of colonízation" The point is of importance for the formation of the Mediterranean nodes, especially since the foundational aspect of colonies may also explain the rapid pace of the overall network formation.

18 BenAmi (1990)' 19 leclerc (2003); Keating (2004); Weatherill and Bernitz (2005). 20 Robertson (1992. 1995. 1997. 1998). For the evolution of the concept (apparently from )apanese business terminology) see Khondker (2004). 21 Robertson (1992. pp. 100-104; 1995). 22 The EU has set up a Committee for the Regions. eu Bistolfi (1995); Bono (1999); Vasconcelos and )offé (2000); Masala (2000); Brauch (2000). " As noted, the network approach of the twenty-first century deconstructs the meaning of "place" since the new technological, economical, and political connectivity often renders place insignificant.

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