By Michael Quinten
A one-stop, concise consultant on making a choice on and measuring skinny movie thickness via optical methods.
This useful publication covers the legislation of electromagnetic radiation and interplay of sunshine with subject, in addition to the idea and perform of thickness size, and sleek functions. In so doing, it exhibits the services and possibilities of optical thickness choice and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of dimension units besides their assessment methods.
Following an creation to the subject, bankruptcy 2 offers the fundamentals of the propagation of sunshine and different electromagnetic radiation in area and subject. the most subject of this publication, the selection of the thickness of a layer in a layer stack through measuring the spectral reflectance or transmittance, is handled within the following 3 chapters. the colour of skinny layers is mentioned in bankruptcy 6. eventually, in bankruptcy 7, the writer discusses numerous commercial purposes of the layer thickness size, together with high-reflection and anti-reflection coatings, photolithographic structuring of semiconductors, silicon on insulator, obvious conductive motion pictures, oxides and polymers, skinny movie photovoltaics, and seriously doped silicon.
Aimed at business and educational researchers, engineers, builders and brands enthusiastic about all components of optical layer and skinny optical movie dimension and metrology, approach keep an eye on, real-time tracking, and applications.
Chapter 1 advent (pages 1–5):
Chapter 2 Propagation of sunshine and different Electromagnetic Waves (pages 7–57):
Chapter three Spectral Reflectance and Transmittance of a Layer Stack (pages 59–80):
Chapter four The Optical dimension (pages 81–119):
Chapter five Thin?Film Thickness selection (pages 121–140):
Chapter 6 the colour of skinny motion pictures (pages 141–147):
Chapter 7 purposes (pages 149–185):
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Additional info for A Practical Guide to Optical Metrology for Thin Films
At this frequency, it is possible to excite longitudinal oscillations of the electron plasma. 1). For realistic metals, the contribution of the interband transitions shifts this position to lower photon energies (longer wavelengths). At v > vP the real part is positive and the imaginary part tends to zero. In this spectral region, the Drude metal behaves like a nonabsorbing dielectrics. Indeed, for a few simple metals, this transparency was proven at very high frequencies . For v < vP, the real part e1 becomes negative and rapidly decreases with decreasing frequency.
That means in the directions where l sin bm ¼ m ; b m ¼ Æ1; Æ2; Æ3; . . ð2:56Þ we will ﬁnd destructive interference and hence no intensity. The number m is, in principle, the order of the appearing minimum. Vice versa, for an odd number of partial waves, we ﬁnd pair-wise beams that interfere destructively, but there remains ﬁnally a bundle of light beams that cannot interfere destructively because there are no other beams available for this interference. Hence, maximum intensity should be obtained in the directions with sin bm ¼ ð2m þ 1Þ l ; 2 b m ¼ 0; Æ1; Æ2; Æ3; .
24b. 24c, we can recognize that the two harmonic oscillators lead to two maxima in the reﬂectance. In this spectral region, the reﬂectance spectrum is rather sensitive to changes caused by thin transparent ﬁlms, either formed as natural oxide or deposited by chemical or physical methods. 24 (a) Dielectric function of Si. (b) Complex refractive index of Si. (c) Reflectance and transmittance of a plane silicon wafer with d ¼ 1000 mm. 2 Wavelength [µm] of a silicon diaphragm with d ¼ 10 mm. This layer was treated incoherently, for which no thickness interference is observable.