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By Carlton J. H. Hayes

Excerpt: ...Pretender." The Methuen Treaty (1703) used to be additionally helpful: it allowed English retailers to promote their manufactures in Portugal with out main issue; in go back for this concession England diminished the tasks on Portuguese wines, and "Port" supplanted "Burgundy" at the tables of English gents. The Act of Union of 1707 was once now not destructive both, for it validated universal alternate rules, customs, and excise in England and in Scotland. To the only own union among the crowns of britain and Scotland which were inaugurated (1603) via the 1st of the Stuart monarchs of britain now succeeded below the final of the Stuart sovereigns a company union of the 2 monarchies below the name of the dominion of serious Britain (1707). Sidenote: Accession of the Hanoverians (1714); endured Decline of Royal energy Upon the loss of life of Anne (1714), the crown handed Footnote: in line with the Act of payment (1701). to her cousin, the son of Sophia of Hanover, George I (1714-1727). the hot king, not able even to talk the English language, less to appreciate the complex traditions of parliamentary govt, was once neither capable nor fearful to rule, yet was once content material basically to reign. The enterprise of management, consequently, was once passed over to a bunch of ministers who strove not just to thrill their royal grasp yet to maintain the good-will of the most important celebration in Parliament. Sidenote: upward push of the cupboard when you consider that this custom, with the numerous customs that have grown up approximately it, has turn into a such a lot crucial a part of the govt. of the uk this present day, and has been copied lately by way of many different international locations, it is very important comprehend its early heritage. Even ahead of the accession of the Tudors, the nice Council of nobles and prelates which had instructed and assisted early kings in issues of management had surrendered such a lot of its genuine capabilities to a rating or so of "Privy Councilors." The Privy Council in flip turned unwieldy,...

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And he was not a tenant-farmer, inasmuch as he was ”attached to the soil,” that is, he was bound to stay and work on his land, unless he succeeded in running away or in purchasing complete freedom, in which case he would cease to be a serf and would become a freeman. [Sidenote: Obligations of the Serf to the Lord] To the lord of the manor the serf was under many and varied obligations, the most essential of which may be grouped conveniently as follows: (1) The serf had to work without pay two or three days in each week on the strips of land and the fields whose produce belonged exclusively to the nobleman.

In 13, a non-Catholic account of the papal monarchy in Italy, of which Vol. VII, Part II and Vol. VIII, Part I treat of Rome about 1500. For the city-states of the Netherlands see Cambridge Modern History , Vol. I (1902), ch. xiii; the monumental History of the People of the Netherlands , by the distinguished Dutch historian P. J. Blok, trans. by O. A. Bierstadt, 5 vols. (1898-1912), especially Vols. I and II; and Belgian Democracy: its Early History , trans. by J. V. Saunders (1915) from the authoritative work of the famous Belgian historian Henri Pirenne (1910).

Thus we read in the book of travel which has borne the name of Sir John Maundeville: ”And if you wish to know the virtues of the diamond, I shall tell you, as they that are beyond the seas say and affirm, from whom all science and philosophy comes. He who carries the diamond upon him, it gives him hardiness and manhood, and it keeps the limbs of his body whole. It gives him victory over his enemies, in court and in war, if his cause be just; and it keeps him that bears it in good wit; and it keeps him from strife and riot, from sorrows and enchantments, and from fantasies and illusions of wicked spirits.

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