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By Edwin A Notley

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Extra resources for A Comparative Grammar of the French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese Languages

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This can be extended to differences in income levels between countries, to argue that in the long run income per capita levels will converge. A lack of empirical support for convergence and the presence of a large, unexplained ‘residual’ factor in the function estimates have presented a major challenge to these models. The endogenous growth theory put forward by Romer (1986) and Lucas (1988) led to renewed interest in economic growth analysis. 00 Notes: The variable listings vertically define the listings horizontally.

GE = Government effectiveness. RQ = Regulatory quality. Log NFCF = Logarithm of net fixed capital formation as a percentage of GDP. Log initial GDP per capita = Logarithm of initial (1980) GDP per capita. Log schooling = Initial (1980) secondary school enrolment (%). Trade = Exports + imports as a percentage of GDP. Inflation = Rate of inflation using country GDP deflators. Government expenditure = General government consumption expenditure as a percentage of GDP. Value figures were standardized to US$ valuations using purchasing power parities.

The assessment is based on expert analysis from an international network and is subject to peer review. , 1998). The second set of governance variables comprises a set of six aggregate indicators developed by the World Bank and drawn from 194 different measures (Kaufmann and Kraay, 2002). 2 The indicators are normalized, with higher values denoting better governance. The six indicators provide a subjective assessment of the following aspects of a country’s quality of governance: • Voice and accountability: respect for political rights and civil liberties, public participation in the process of electing policymakers, independence of media, accountability and transparency of government decisions.

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