By Tom Lansford Ph.D.
This e-book analyzes the complicated motives and results of the September eleven, 2001, terrorist assaults either regionally and across the world, and examines the following wars in Afghanistan and Iraq.
• presents insightful rates from modern figures and first files starting from Osama bin Laden's 1998 fatwa opposed to the us to the 2006 Iraq learn staff Report
• includes 12 biographies starting from Osama bin encumbered to George W. Bush that offer distinctive history on vital figures from the era
• provides a chronology of occasions from the Nineteen Seventies to the current day, together with occurrences resulting in the September eleven, 2001, assaults and the Iraq War
• features a decide upon bibliography of significant works at the September eleven, 2001, assaults; the struggle in Iraq; place of birth safety; and the struggle on terror
• encompasses a specific word list of key words reminiscent of "Shiite" and "weapons of mass destruction"
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Extra info for 9/11 and the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. A Chronology and Reference Guide
Known as the Tribute in Light, the beams were ﬁrst displayed in March 2002. A design for a permanent memorial at the site was selected in 2004, and construction began in 2006. S. ofﬁcials from Bush to Giuliani to New York governor George Pataki pledged to rebuild the WTC. In addition to rebuilding smaller structures that were destroyed or damaged in the attack, the Twin Towers were scheduled to be replaced by a single structure, known initially as the Freedom Tower. The building was designed to be 1776 feet high (including its antennae) in honor of the year that the Declaration of Independence was signed.
Nonetheless, the United States of 2000 was in many ways less secure than it had been in 1990. Al Qaeda’s global network had grown in size and capability, while Iraq had forced UN inspectors out of the country and Saddam appeared more ﬁrmly in power than he had at the end of the 1991 Gulf War. Notes 1. Robert P. Watson, “The Politics and History of Terror,” in America’s War on Terror, 2nd ed. Tom Lansford, Robert P. Watson, and Jack Covarrubias (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2009), 2. 2. James E. Carter, “Speech on Afghanistan,” January 4, 1980.
George H. W. Bush, “Address to the Nation Announcing Allied Military Action in the Persian Gulf,” January 16, 1991. 5. Bill Clinton, “Address to the Nation,” August 20, 1998, reprinted by PBS, Newshour. 6. Gerry J. Gilmore, “Cohen Absolves USS Cole Skipper, Crew,” Armed Forces Press Service, January 22, 2001. 2 The 9/11 Attacks By 2000, al Qaeda was in the midst of planning a range of attacks against the United States. S. policy. S. troops were still stationed in the Middle East, the United States continued to support Israel diplomatically and with both ﬁnancial and military assistance, and American culture seemed to be making even deeper inroads into the Muslim world.